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Foundation Degree (FdA) Children and Young People

The Structure of the Action Research Project:


The project uses the a number of theories of action research all designed to encourage an improvement in skill / knowledge / practice;

  • Identify (Choosing to change)
  • Plan and Design (Planning for Change)
  • Delivery (Creating Change)
  • Evaluation and Reflection (Sharing the lessons of change)

Identify (Choosing to Change)

Research Title: Action Research Project: School Fruit and Vegetable Scheme

What is action research? Why is it important?

The scheme is already in place at school, I would like to change the approach to the practice to allow children to choose what fruits or vegetables they would like by giving them a choice from a variety of options.

Currently the process is a limited choice of a certain fruit or vegetable for snack time for each child due to changes in school. Therefore, when it is time for them to choose their snacks many children always ask if there is anything else as they do not like what is available on that day. As a result, to this, many children just chose to drink their milk and do not choose a snack as there is many left behind that gets passed on to other year groups in school.

I want to change the current approach as I believe if the children are given choices from a variety of fruits and vegetables they will choose one of the options available rather than miss the opportunity of having no snacks at all. Also, this will help as there will be less waste and disposal of unwanted fruits and vegetables.

The school fruit and vegetable scheme (SFVS) helps children achieve their 5 a day as it is recommended that children eat at least 5 portions or fruit and vegetables every day. Research shows that on average children in England only eat about 3 portions or fewer a day (NHS, 2018).

NHS Funding for school

In school 4-6-year olds that attended a full state funded school in England are entitled to receive a free piece of fruit or vegetable each school day as it helps to increase awareness of the importance of eating fruit and vegetables, encouraging them to have a healthy eating habit that can be carried in to their normal life and continued into later life.

Disturbing fruit and vegetables in class helps to encourage a sharing, calm and social times, it also allows teachers to incorporate the scheme into teaching and learning as part of their food education (NHS, 2018).

Healthy Mind and Eating, Link to Maslow Hierarchy theory

Motivation, Vygotsky: zone of promixal development

Vygotsky is a social constructivist who saw children as active learners. He believed that children can perform at a higher level when they are offered help than if they are left to struggle on their own. If someone who is more able supports them through their ‘zone of promixal development’, the child’s potential will increase. This is the gap between what a child can do unaided and what they can do with help (Smidt, 2007).

Children see their teachers as role model, so if the teacher or adults promotes healthy eating to the child, the child may choose to continue to do that themselves. Smidt, S. (2007). A guide to early years practice (3rd ed). London: Routledge

Involve children in healthy choice

Behaviour and learning

Healthy eating/keep active/manage weight/care/wellbeing Energy for moving about, warmth, protection, strong hair and nails, healthy skin, strong muscles

Growth and Development Healthy body/fights infections/growth, strong bones and teeth,


Why it is important/impact on children

Education: Policies and act. Educate children why it is beneficial, government scheme Family and community spirit What I want and how to get their (Aims and values) Examine studies and theories (about 20 references, books, journals, professional bodies, websites, research reports and policies) Plan and Design (Planning to Change)

Research design

After having a discussion with the teacher about my action research project, she said it will be beneficial to talk about healthy eating as the children do not know much about it. I have done a presentation in class about healthy eating before changing the approach as this will give the children information about healthy eating and get their brains thinking about what healthy eating is and why we must eat healthy. I am hoping it will encourage them to think about their eating habits and maybe talk to their parents or others about eating well to stay well. I have talked about how food gives us energy to be able to do things during the day, how food keeps us healthy and how it helps us to grow. After the presentation I gave them an activity to do, which was an empty image of a lunch box with cut out images of healthy and unhealthy food. This enabled them to choose and design their own lunch box and allow them to decide which food was healthy and unhealthy.

Research includes:

Talk to teacher about what the children know about healthy eating Talk to children after the presentation, what they know Do a questionnaire with images of fruits and vegetables so the children can tick which ones they like. This will give me an understanding of what their favourite fruits and vegetables are. (popular and least popular). Observations- Been observing since October, one fruit or veg a day, no varieties. Just a simple yes or no choice

Explain and evaluate ethical responsibilities in your research

Summarise why considering ethics in research is important. What specific ethical responsibilities do you have to consider in your action research project when involving children and young people? Relate your research to the BERA guidelines.

Collecting data

Questionnaire then tally chart how many children like what fruits and veg. This will give me the advantage to know which fruits and veg are popular, I will know how much quantity to buy as a rough estimate and see if we can get the free fruit and veg changes to getting more popular ones.

Another questionnaire which will state two options: Give them the choice to choose from 3 whole fruits and veg or have 3 fruits and veg cut up in pieces and they choose how many little pieces they want and can have the choice of all 3. (This will be a little time consuming than giving out whole fruits and veg)

Evaluation and Reflection (Sharing the lessons of change)

Note: I have not collected the data yet, so you can leave all the red till I have collected it and done the project, then can draw up on the evaluation and reflection. When writing this module can you please simply the words as the module you did before had more complexed wording HOD22996.

Max’s Mother started working at the time he needed intensive care to ensure his mental health and wellbeing could cope with his Father’s death, his immediate environment and Mother should have been the fundamental roles in guiding Max through early life transition (Vogler, Crivello & Woodhead 2008). Bronfenbrenner (1989) developed the ecological system theory in which he explains how everything in a child’s development is affected by its environment and surroundings (Doherty and Hughes, 2009). He believes it is important to explore a child’s development in several layers both directly and indirectly. This links to Max as when he was 6 years old, his Mother had noticed the changes within himself. Bronfenbrenner also believes that the primary relationship needs to be by a person or people within the immediate sphere of the child’s influence who can provide care, which is the microsystem in the theory. The mesosystem is the school and teachers, they fulfil an important secondary role but cannot provide the support or interaction that can be provided by the primary adults (Burk, 2000). Max’s school teacher also noticed changes in him, as the teacher has a vital role in the ecological system, they will raise their concerns to mum who provides Max with care. The macrosystem is link to social and cultural values events, as Max’s Father passed away when he was young, his Mother may have needed a job to be financial stable and this may have had a negative impact on Max’s life as she could not provide sufficient care and support by being around a lot more (Vogler et al, 2008). Bronfenbrenner’s theory identifies that shaping a child involves all four systems that affects a child’s learning and development, as they are in constant interaction and influence with each other (Doherty and Hughes, 2009).

Piaget’s theory sets out age-related ‘developmental stages’, this theory is a useful guide to intellectual growth (Pritchard, 2014). This theory shows similarities to Max as he is seven years old, he fits in to the ‘concrete operational stage’, as he can think logically about events he has experienced and can order, evaluate and explain them and take in to account multiple perspectives. Although he can understand concrete problems, Piaget believed that a person his age cannot effectively deal with more mental problems (Pritchard, 2014). As Max understands his thoughts are his own and unique, he may not want to share them with others as he may feel his being judged as he cannot cope with depression. Piaget’s cognitive development is processing information based on the thought process behind the behaviour. They observe the changes in behaviour but only as an indicator to what is going on in the child’s head (Pritchard, 2014). Max was in the Pre-operational stage when he was experiencing this, this will affect him at this stage as children tend to be egocentric and struggle to see things from others perspective. A child should be able to enjoy their independence although still needing comfort and reassurance while improving at language and thinking (Brown & Desforges, 2006). He may not have had this as his Father passed away, his Mother was working and no family around him, by now Max should have a good sense of self-awareness which will have been developed both negatively and positively (Burnham & Baker, 2010).

In addition, Mary Ainsworth’s attachment theory shows the importance of building a strong bond between two or more people. This links to max as he has no secure attachment and his behaviour has changed. Howe (2011) stated that Bowlby believes that a child and a parent who have a close relationship will have a better chance of good development in childhood. Bowlby (1997) ‘pointed out that patterns of attachment can and will change as the quality and characters of the relationship change’ (Bowlby, 1997, cited in Howe, 2011, p. 216). Mary Ainsworth identified the ‘attachment behaviour’ which shows the pain, loss and separation children feel when absent from their parent. Her theory shows that children who have a weak bond show signs of strong emotions and stress (Psychologist World 2017). Ainsworth’s attachment behaviour theory links to this case study as losing a parent at a young age has a raised risk of insecurity and a significant impact on a child’s development. Max lost his Father at the age of three, he may feel distressed as his affectional bond has been broken. As he feels sad and lacks in confidence it may suggest he fears losing his Mother as she is not around much due to work to show him support and guidance (Psychologist World 2017).

Reference List

  • Alhnan, M.A., Okwuosa, T.C., Sadia, M., Wan, K.W., Ahmed, W. and Arafat, B., 2016. Emergence of 3D printed dosage forms: opportunities and challenges. Pharmaceutical research, 33(8), pp.1817-1832.
  • Attaran, M., 2017. The rise of 3-D printing: The advantages of additive manufacturing over traditional manufacturing. Business Horizons, 60(5), pp.677-688.
  • Bandyopadhyay, A., Bose, S. and Das, S., 2015. 3D printing of biomaterials. MRS bulletin, 40(2), pp.108-115.
  • Bhattacharjee, N., Urrios, A., Kang, S. and Folch, A., 2016. The upcoming 3D-printing revolution in microfluidics. Lab on a Chip, 16(10), pp.1720-1742.
  • Chhaya, M.P., Poh, P.S., Balmayor, E.R., van Griensven, M., Schantz, J.T. and Hutmacher, D.W., 2015. Additive manufacturing in biomedical sciences and the need for definitions and norms. Expert review of medical devices, 12(5), pp.537-543.
  • Gosselin, C., Duballet, R., Roux, P., Gaudillière, N., Dirrenberger, J. and Morel, P., 2016. Large-scale 3D printing of ultra-high-performance concrete–a new processing route for architects and builders. Materials & Design, 100, pp.102-109.
  • Jammalamadaka, U., and Tappa, K., 2018. Recent Advances in Biomaterials for 3D Printing and Tissue Engineering. [online] available at: [Accessed on 23 February 2019].
  • Kalaskar, D.M. ed., 2017. 3D printing in medicine. London: Woodhead Publishing.
  • Liaw, C.Y. and Guvendiren, M., 2017. Current and emerging applications of 3D printing in medicine. Biofabrication, 9(2), p.024102.
  • Ngo, T.D., Kashani, A., Imbalzano, G., Nguyen, K.T. and Hui, D., 2018. Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges. Composites Part B: Engineering, 143, pp.172-196.
  • Shemelya, C., Banuelos-Chacon, L., Melendez, A., Kief, C., Espalin, D., Wicker, R., Krijnen, G. and MacDonald, E., 2015, November. Multi-functional 3D printed and embedded sensors for satellite qualification structures. In 2015 IEEE SENSORS(pp. 1-4). IEEE.
  • Ventola, C. L., 2014. Medical Applications for 3D Printing: Current and Projected Uses. [online] available at: [Accessed on 23 February 2019].
  • Wang, X., Jiang, M., Zhou, Z., Gou, J. and Hui, D., 2017. 3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective. Composites Part B: Engineering, 110, pp.442-458.
  • Wimpenny, D.I., Pandey, P.M. and Kumar, L.J. eds., 2017. Advances in 3D printing & additive manufacturing technologies. Berlin: Springer.
  • Yan, Q., Dong. H., Su, j., Han J., Song, B., Wei, Q., and Shi, Y., 2018. A Review of 3D Printing Technology for Medical Applications. [online] available at: [Accessed on 23 February 2019].

Annoted bibliography

Jammalamadaka, U., and Tappa, K., 2018. Recent Advances in Biomaterials for 3D Printing and Tissue Engineering. [online] available at: [Accessed on 23 February 2019]. Through this paper, it is possible, to understand the advantages of utilising the 3D printing technology in the biomedical industry, where the authors provides the methods of using 3D printing as well as its advantages such as fabricating scaffolds using 3D printing, ability to create 3D printing of different organs, multiple cells which in turn helps in enhancing growth in using 3D printing mechanism in the biomedical industry for better care and practice. However, in this regard, the authors lack in discussing the recent uses and application of 3D printers in the health and social care institutions for better care and delivering quality treatment to the patients.

Reference 2:

Ventola, C. L., 2014. Medical Applications for 3D Printing: Current and Projected Uses. [online] available at: [Accessed on 23 February 2019].

The study is effective for understanding the medical application for 3D printers and current trends of utilising the 3D printing mechanism in the biomedical industry. The concept of 3D printing, application and future trends of using 3D printing as well as concept of applying this technique for medical purpose provide an opportunity to develop understanding about the 3D printing technology. In addition to these, the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printing in the biomedical industry are effective in this paper to acknowledge why the biomedical industry is interested to move towards 3D printing mechanism for providing better care and treatment to the patients in a time effective and cost-efficient manner.

Reference 3:

Yan, Q., Dong. H., Su, j., Han J., Song, B., Wei, Q., and Shi, Y., 2018. A Review of 3D Printing Technology for Medical Applications. [online] available at: [Accessed on 23 February 2019].

In this paper, the authors focus on discussing the medical application of 3D printing in which the 3D printing technology is successful in resolving the challenge of organ transplantation by creating personalised tissue, developing engineering scaffolds, repairing tissue defects in situ with cells, and even directly print tissue and organs. In this research, the introduction of 3D printing technology and its use in biomedical industry as well as the existing problems of developing 3D printing and developing proper solution for utilising this 3D printing mechanism are discussed. The conclusion and the future directions are also effective to understand the reason why the biomedical industry turn into proper utilisation of 3D printing technology, but the research lacks in discussing real life explanation and case studies in which the 3D printing has been applied.